BUGIS provides this glossary of technical terms as used on a daily basis in the textile industry.


Knitting (Fr: Tricot) is an interlaced loop material also known as weaving or stitching. It differs from other textiles usually consisting of a crisscrossing of warp and weft yarns, and consists of a single wound yarn looping on itself. All textile fibres can be knitted. There is a large variety of stitches and patterns and motifs (motif knits, jacquard knit). The production of knitwear is also referred to as hosiery (Fr: bonneterie). These knits are easily knit and the best known is jersey but there are also interlock, ribs, etc … These stitches are frequently used in underwear, t-shirts, sweaters, socks, etc…


Asymmetric knitted fabric with two different faces. This is the simplest weaving that can be made in this technique. Jersey is used mainly by the clothing industry. The jersey can be made in cotton, linen, viscose polyester, polyamide, etc …


Two yarns are needed to make a row of stitches. The reverse side of this knitted jersey has so-called “chain” yarns. They form long floats that can be scrubbed. This knit is called “visible” because the hooking points are perceivable on the front face.


Two yarns are needed to make a row of stitches. Three yarns are needed to finish a row of stitches. A warp yarn, a backing yarn, a binding yarn. The tying yarn is no longer visible on the face.


The stitches are loaded in staggered form (twill) and characterised by raised parallel cords or geometric designs in the fabric.


The appearance of the fabric is jersey but on the reverse side of the knitted fabric the non-patterned yarns at the fabric place passes in the form of a floating yarn. Of relative quality using this technique, the patterns must be small in order to avoid a floating yarn that is too long on the reverse of the fabric.


This technique uses the two needle beds of the knitting machine. In the case of the knitted stitch, the reverse side of the knitted fabric has a regular “dotted” color appearance. In the case of light jacquard the reverse side of knitting gives a random pattern.


The fabric has a reversible negative positive pattern. It has the distinction of having two displaced layers of jersey that are connected to others according to the graphic pattern. Often treated in two colors, however, it can have a different pattern on both sides.


For the classic loop stitched jersey, two yarns are used: one for the bottom, usually made of polyamide or polyester, the other for the cotton loop. Different loop heights exist. The velvety appearance can be obtained by treatment of so-called ‘shave’, (cutting of the top of the loop).


Both sides are identical. It is made on a double-needle loom whose needles are positioned face to face.


Both sides are identical. Very extendible in the direction of the rows. The needles are staggered.


The knitting is obtained by the regular removal of needles on the two needle beds of the loom. This results in a ribbed appearance on both sides. It is possible, if desired, to incorporate spandex in order to increase the elasticity of the weave.


Two jerseys put back to back are linked together by common weaves or by an independent yarn.


A process used to assemble (glue) two fabrics back to back.


Also known as Spandex. LYCRA® is the trademark of elastane fiber by DuPont™. This material derived from polyurethane is more resistant than latex. More and more textiles contain spandex in their composition.


Cotton is a vegetable fiber that surrounds cotton seeds. This fiber is usually processed into yarn used to knit fabrics. Cotton is the most important natural fiber produced in the world (nearly half the world’s use of cotton is for textile fibers).

ORGANIC COTTON (from organic farming)

Organic cotton is grown on organic compost without the use of fertilizers or pesticides . Organic farming uses natural fertilizers, preserving and keeping the soil healthy and productive.


Cultivated flax is an annual plant of the Linaceae family cultivated mainly for its fibers, but also for its oilseeds. The fibers of linen make it possible to make rope and fabrics. Flax is one of the few European plant textile fibers. It has the particularity of having a long fiber (several tens of centimeters), compared to short fibers (cotton, hemp) or medium (wool).


The word wool is commonly used to refer to the keratin fibers of ovine origin used in textile production. The term “wool” refers to the fibers of sheep as well as fibers of other animals (but in the latter case they are always called these textiles by their name), the fleece of which is composed of keratinous fibers such as the Angora goat (“mohair wool”), the albino or “Angora” rabbit , “Cashmere” goat, Llama, Alpaca, Guanaco, Cashgora Goat, Camel, Yak etc. Wool is used in all areas of the textile industry: knitting, woven garments, footwear, upholstery fabrics.


A fiber of animal origin. A continuous yarn is obtained after unwinding the cocoon produced by the larva of a butterfly. Silk fiber is very absorbent: it can absorb up to 30% of its weight and keep 12%. Silk yarn is fine, elastic and supple. Crease-resistant and lightweight, silk yarn is white, very shiny and very soft. It is 3 times stronger than wool.


An artificial fiber obtained by processing vegetable or wood cellulose.


Same process as viscose. Transformation of bamboo cellulose.


A fiber extracted from wood cellulose, natural raw material. It is soft, supple and silky, for increased comfort. It has the particularity of remaining soft and supple even after several washes and is particularly absorbent and breathable. Modal is similar in characteristics to that of viscose. Its appearance is shiny, matt or colored-through.


A synthetic material, resistant yarn, flexible, easy to maintain and having a very good thermal memory (creasing, pleating). Polyester is mainly used to make synthetic textile fibers, the most widely known being Tergal and Dacron. It is the most produced synthetic fiber in the world. It represents 70% of the synthetic fibers used in clothing. Its use widespread use is in mixtures with other fibers, especially cotton. It has applications are diverse in the textile industry.


Polyamides are polymers, synthetic materials, resistant yarn, flexible, relatively elastic, and easily maintained. Examples: Meryl, Tactel.

CONTROL UNION Certification

A network of independent subsidiaries that specialize in inspection, analysis, certification and compliance verification. Our raw cotton yarn, from organic cultivation, is certified by the Control Union.

ICEA Certification

The stated aim of this charter is to promote the use of raw materials derived from organic farming, to ban the use of pollutants, allergens, irritants or hazards to human health, to preserve the environment by avoiding over-packaging and pollution-producing manufacturing processes.

Our raw cotton yarn, from organic cultivation, is certified by ICEA.

OCIA Certification

Certification of organic cultivation and organic foods. Our dyed, organic cotton is certified by OCIA.

Certification OEK-TEX® 100

The OEK-TEX® Standard 100 is a worldwide inspection and certification system for raw, semi-finished and finished textile products of all stages of processing.

Controls on harmful substances, according to the OEK-TEX® Standard 100, are always based on the intended use of the textiles. The general rule that applies is therefore: The more intense the contact of a textile is with the skin (and the more sensitive the skin), the higher the requirements are in terms of human ecology.

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